Growth and development of fetus in second trimester

Second trimester of the pregnancy is considered as the golden stage for a mother. The second trimester is from week 13 through week 27 or from fourth to sixth month. In the second semester, the mother starts to show the outward symptoms, especially growing belly and weight gain. The mother has a glow on her face, feels less tired, nausea is gone, and she feels energized and happy during this phase. The movements of the baby can be felt inside the womb. The baby is about 3 inches long and by the end of the trimester, it reaches to a height of about 9 inches. The baby begins to move the eyes and is able to make expressions using facial muscles such as squinting, smiling, and frowning. In this article, we will explore some details about the growth and development of the fetus in the second trimester.

Fourth month

Fetus development in fourth month

In the fourth month of pregnancy, the baby is more active than before and the mother can experience movements in the form of pushing and stretching. In this period, the baby continues to develop and begins establishing behavioral patterns. The baby can yawn, stretch, suck thumb, and even make faces. In this period of pregnancy, the fetus fingers and toes are well defined. The eyes, ears, nose, eyelashes, eyelids, and nails are fully formed.

The nervous system starts functioning during this phase and the reproductive organs are fully developed. The baby will grow teeth root and scalp develops a hairline pattern during this month. Through ultrasound, the sex of the fetus can be determined and the heartbeat is audible through an instrument called Doppler. The placenta matures making the mother and fetus closely bound. By the end of fourth month, the fetus grows about 6 inches long and weighs from 3 to 4 ounces.

The mother’s body changes during the fourth month and the mother starts showing the belly bump with the increasing weight. The mother can feel the fetus movements in the womb. Due to hormonal changes, a thin hair line from naval to pubic turns dark; however, it will be lighter again after the birth of the baby.

Fifth month

Fetus development in fifth month

Fifth month of pregnancy is exciting as a whole lot of new things take place. The internal organs of the fetus are formed. The muscles of the baby develop in this month. Eyebrows and eyelashes turn more realistic and skin starts to develop fat that keeps the baby warm. The thickness of the hair is much better as compared to the fourth month and the baby teeth start forming in the gums. The baby’s pads of toes and fingers develop in this month. The movement of the baby is more apparent now as he or she begins reacting to loud noises and shrill sounds.

In response to noises, the baby may get startled or kick in dislike. The baby turns from side to side. If the baby is a girl then she will develop eggs in her ovaries. At the end of this month, the baby’s weight is now up to 10 ounces and it measures about 9 to 10 inches. The mother continues to put on weight. The skin of the belly stretches, tightens and itching is felt on the belly. The breasts continue to become larger with soft nipples and small bumps may appear around the nipples. In this month, the heart rate starts to increase to meet the oxygen requirement of the baby.

Sixth month

fetus development in sixth month

The fetus continues to grow and develop remarkably in the sixth month. In this period of pregnancy, there is a lot of movement as the baby is small enough to move freely and often change the position. The fat begins to form under the surface of the skin, which keeps the baby warm and regulates body temperature when the baby is born. Fine hair grows all over the body. The growth continues for toes and fingers and eyelids starts opening but the lungs of the baby are not developed in this month of pregnancy. The facial expressions of baby resemble a miniature newborn.

The skin of the baby is reddish in color, wrinkled and veins are visible through the transparent skin. The first stool, meconium, of the baby is formed in the intestines. By the end of sixth month, the baby measures about 11 to 12 inches and weighs 2 pounds. Most pregnant women experience their best pregnancy period in the sixth month. The mother feels happy, glowing and looks great. As the baby grows bigger, itching increases due to the stretching of the skin. The mother legs begin to ache due to the strain of extra weight accompanied by heartburn and backaches. The increased blood circulation makes the mother’s face look rosy and healthy. The urge to urinate increases due to pressure on the bladder from the growing uterus.

Things to remember

During this trimester, it is important to have regular prenatal care and weekly check ups. The doctor monitors the mother and baby for any complications as they are easier to treat if the mother is given proper care. As the body changes from time to time, it becomes important to visit doctor for regular check up of blood pressure, urine, size and shape of uterus, position of the baby, swelling of legs and feet, weight and baby’s heart rate and movements. Major concerns can be resolved with regular visits to the doctor. Remember to keep doing mild exercises as suggested by the doctor throughout the pregnancy and enjoy the experience of a lifetime.

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