Kidney Stone: Causes
1. Lack or low levels of water intake
Kidney stones are developed as a result of precipitation of the various chemical compounds in a water scare environment within the body. When the recommended amount of water, which is about eight to ten glasses is not adhered to by people, the lack of water leads to low levels of pH and a resultant highly acidic urine. This condition in the long run paves way for the formation of stones in the kidney.
2. Medical conditions
Multiple studies world over reveal that certain medical conditions may lead to higher instances of crystal formation in the patient. These medical conditions may vary from urinary tract infections to kidney diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, renal tubular acidosis, hyperthyroidism and gout. Once affected by any of the above diseases, an additional acute condition of kidney stones may develop in the long run and further worsen the condition of the patient.
3. Role of certain medications
Some patients suffering from various other disorders when put on medications that are rich in vitamin D, vitamin A and calcium have shown to be at an elevated risk of developing kidney stones in the long run. The reason can be attributed to the high concentration of these vitamins and minerals in the urine which is additionally not nullified with the appropriate intake of water. Patients suffering from HIV have also shown to run the risk of developing indinavir stones due to the administration of crixivan drug. Besides the above, certain other medications such as dilantin and anitibiotics like ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin have also shown to cause kidney stones in the affected patients
4. Diet as a cause
It has been researched that certain dietary affinities can lead to kidney stones too in some cases. A high protein diet, for instance, may lead to the formation of uric acid crystals in an individual leading to development of uric acid stones while some fruits, vegetables, nuts and chocolate with high oxalate levels may lead to calcium stones in the kidney.
5. Surgeries and diseases
Certain studies conducted on patients suffering from kidney stones have revealed that bypass surgery and other metabolic diseases can lead to increased levels of calcium or oxalate crystals in the kidney. These crystals often stick together and down the line lead to formation of stones in these patients.
6. Geographical location
Certain surveys and studies conducted across the world establish a direct correlation between the people suffering from kidney stones and their geographical locations. One such study conducted on the people living in southern United States suggested a direct link between the occurrence of kidney stones and the geographical location of the individual. In these areas for instance, hot climate coupled with poor intake of fluid lead to formation of crystals in the kidney of the patient who stuck to each other to form “nidus” and subsequently developed into larger stones. These areas were referred to as “stone belts” due to higher concentration of people being affected by the aforesaid condition.
7. Hereditary causes
Researches have evinced that heredity plays a significant role in passing on kidney stone disorder from generation to generation. Certain hereditary diseases such as renal tubular acidosis and defects in metabolizing chemicals such as cystine, oxalate and uric acid may be passed on from forefathers to their later generations. Various other studies conducted world over have lead to the startling fact that in some cases high levels of calcium may be passed on through generations as well. This can thus lead to higher instances of people suffering from kidney stones in the affected family tree.
8. Pathological conditions as a cause
Phosphate crystals may be formed in the kidneys as a result of obstruction caused due to the infection of the urinary tract in some patients. These crystals work in the same fashion as calcium or uric acid crystals and coagulate to form stones in the kidney of the patient in addition to the above infection.
9. Effect of certain drugs
The role of certain drugs in contributing to the cause of kidney stones has been already extensively studied by medical professionals across the world. One such study thus conducted, showed a direct role of certain drugs such as topamax, which is used to treat seizures and migraines, in having the ability to create calcium phosphate stones in the patients.
10. Hormonal imbalance
Although not very frequent, but in a few cases studies have revealed a direct link between excessive hormone secretion of the parathyroid glands and instances of kidney stones. In these cases, the increased hormonal secretion lead to higher concentration of calcium in the kidney which subsequently transformed to calcium stones in the patient.
11. Effect of certain types of foods
Dr. Linda Massey of Washington State University in Spokane, the lead in the study of the effect of caffeine on kidney stones, indicated high levels of caffeine had the potential to cause kidney stones. Thus, people with a history of kidney stones are advised to limit their caffeine intake altogether or to about two cups of coffee per day. While other studies conducted across the world correlated a high intake of citrus juice to lower the instances of kidney stones in patients.